How Obesity Surgery Causes Weight Loss?

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How Obesity Surgery Causes Weight Loss?

Obesity Surgery mainly reduces weight in three ways: Restriction Malabsorption Metabolic

How Obesity Surgery Causes Weight Loss?


Obesity Surgery mainly reduces weight in three ways:

  1. Restriction
  2. Malabsorption
  3. Metabolic


It is impossible to direct treatment without understanding what causes obesity. Achieving weight balance is basically described as an easy artimatic equation; Difference between calories taken and calories spent. However, if it were so simple, we could have achieved success with diet, exercise and medication at every stage of obesity. However, there is a reality that patients often describe and what we call the  yoyo effect. When a certain point of fatness of patients when they do their diet, exercise, although they do to lose weight, although they can not stay in that weight, and their weight fluctuates up and down like yoyo. The main problem here is that over 5 years of BMI patients over 5 years due to excessive accumulation of excess fatty acids in the muscles, internal organs, changes in energy burning metabolism, as well as the secretion of hormones that oppose obesity (especially from the last part of the small intestine) is a permanent disorder. This enters a vicious circle; weight gain metabolism deteriorates, metabolism deteriorates weight gain.

Obesity surgery is performed both in accordance with the classical weight loss strategy, but hormonal activation, which is the underlying problem, is provided.

How Obesity Surgery Causes Weight Loss?


Restriction: Reducing the amount of food eaten in a meal

Malabsorptive: reducing digestion of edible foods

Metabolic: By modifying the secretion of hormones secreted from the small intestine, pancreas, liver and adipose tissue

Restriction actually corresponds to diet, malabsorption corresponds to medication. If the success rate with diet and drug treatments is 0.1% in patients with surgical indications, and the success rate with surgery is mentioned in 95%, the metabolic response caused by these surgeries should be considered here




Restrictive Surgery

  • Intragastric Balloon
  • Intragastric Botox Injection
  • Gastric Plication

Malabsorptive Surgery

  • Biliopancreatic Diversion

Mixt Surgery

  • Sleeve Gastrectomy
  • Gastric Bypass
  • Sleeve Gastrectomy + Transit Bipartition
  • Biliopancreatic Diversion + Duodenal Switch
  • Ileal interposition


Methods containing only restriction in patients with indications for surgery are no longer preferred due to the high long-term failure rates. Malabsorptive surgery is not preferred because it has vital complications in the long term. Nowadays, mixed surgeries are preferred most frequently. These surgeries have some restrictive effect, some malabsorptive effect and some metabolic effects. According to the above order, malabsoptif and metabolic effects increase as it goes down from the top.